Why Does LTPB Exist?
- Young adults have the highest smoking prevalence of all age groups1
- Half of young adults are in school2
- Smoking initiation and escalation occurs among college/university students:
- 19% of current smokers began smoking regularly after arriving on campus3
- 10% of post-secondary smokers had their first cigarette after the age of 194,5
- 10% of non-smoking students intend to start smoking6
- most post-secondary students over-estimate how many of their peers smoke7
- See also8,9,10
- among young adults who have ever smoked but are not currently established (daily) smokers, approximately 54% are at risk for smoking in the future11
- among established smokers – including those who are trying to quit (i.e., have been smoke-free for less than 1 year) approximately 86% are at risk for future smoking11
- stress associated with the transition to and experiences of college/university life may magnify the risk of smoking uptake and escalation12-14
- intensive tobacco marketing strategies targeting this population may also escalate tobacco consumption of post-secondary students15-17
- experimentation with recreational drugs peaks in mid-adolescence, but the risk period for smoking onset/escalation and overuse of alcohol extends into the early 20s18-20
Young adult smokers on college and university campuses represent a sizable and definable population with which to intervene around smoking. Most post-secondary smokers want to quit, and make repeated quit attempts21. Appealing, accessible smoking cessation strategies that reach a wide audience and assist smokers to quit are needed on post-secondary campuses.
1 CTUMS (2008). Health Canada’s Tobacco Control Programme. Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey: Smoking Prevalence 1999-2008
Ottawa: Government of Canada; 2009. Accessed September 29th 2009.
2 AUCC (2008). Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada. Fall 2008 preliminary full-time and part-time enrolment at AUCC member institutions. http://www.aucc.ca/policy/research/enrol_e.html Accessed September 29th 2009.
3 Rigotti, N., Lee, J.E., & Wechsler, H. (2000). US college students’ use of tobacco products: results of a national survey. JAMA, 284, 699-705.
4 Everett, S., Husten, C., Kann, L., Warren, C., Sharp, D., & Crossett, L. (1999). Smoking initiation and smoking patterns among US college students. Journal of American College Health, 48, 55-60.
5 Cairney, J. & Lawrance, K.G. (2002). Smoking on campus. An examination of smoking behaviours among post-secondary students in Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 93, 313-316.
6 DeBernardo, R., Aldinger, C., Dawood, O., Hanson, R., Lee, S., & Rinaldi, S. (1999). An e-mail assessment of undergraduates’ attitudes toward smoking. Journal of American College Health, 48, 61-66.
7 Page, R. (1998). College students’ distorted perception of the prevalence of smoking. Psychological Reports, 82, 474.
8 Wetter, D.W., Kenford, S.L., Welsh, S.K., Smith, S.S., Fouladi, R.T., Fiore, M.C. & Baker, T.B. (2004) Prevalence and predictors of smoking behavior among college students. Health Psychology, 23(2), 168-177. [Abstract]
9 Lantz, P., Jacobson, P., Warner, K., et al. (2000). Investing in youth tobacco control: a review of smoking prevention and control strategies. Tobacco Control, 9, 47-63.
10 Moskal, P., Dziuban, C., & West, G. (1999). Examining the use of tobacco on college campuses. Journal of American College Health, 47, 260-265.
11 Gilpin, E., White, V., & Pierce, J. (2005). What fraction of young adults are at risk for future smoking, and who are they? Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 7, 747-759.
12 Steptoe, A., Wardle, J., Plooard, T., Canaan, L., & Davies, G. (1996). Stress, social support and health-related behavior: a study of smoking, alcohol consumption and physical exercise. Journal of Psychomotor Research, 41, 171-180.
13 Lenz, B. (2004). Tobacco, Depression, and Lifestyle Choices in the Pivotal Early College Years. Journal of American College Health, 52, 213-219.
14 Naquin, M., & Gilbert, G. (1996). College students’ smoking behavior, perceived stress, and coping styles. Journal of Drug Education 26, 367-377.
15 Ling, P., & Glantz, S. (2002). Why and How the Tobacco Industry Sells Cigarettes to Young Adults: Evidence From Industry Documents. American Journal of Public Health, 92, 908-916.
16 Sepe, E., Ling, P., & Glantz, S. (2002). Smooth Moves: Bar and Nightclub Tobacco Promotions That Target Young Adults. American Journal of Public Health, 92, 414-419.
17 Rigotti, N., Moran, S., & Wechsler, H. (2005). US College Students’ Exposure to Tobacco Promotions: Prevalence and Association With Tobacco Use. American Journal of Public Health, 95, 138-144.
18 DeWit, D., Offord, R., & Wong, M. (1997). Patterns of onset and cessation of drug use over the early part of the life course. Health Education & Behavior, 24, 746–758.
19 Emmons, K.M., Wechsler, H., Dowdall, G., & Abraham, M. (1998). Predictors of smoking among US college students. American Journal of Public Health, 88, 104-107.
20 Sax, L. (1997). Health trends among college freshmen. Journal of American College Health, 45, 252–262.
21 Patterson, F., Lerman, C., Kaufmann, V., Neuner, G., & Audrain-McGovern, J. (2004). Cigarette smoking practices among American college students: Review and future directions. Journal of American College Health, 52, 203-210.